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Choosing Home Water Filters & Other Water Treatment Systems

Best Home Water Filters 2021 | Water Filter Reviews

Step 3: Consider how the filter fits your home, lifestyle, and budget.

Many different types of filters are available to consumers. Determining which type is most appropriate for you—or whether you need a filter at all—depends on what functions you want a filter to provide. No filter eliminates all contaminants, so understanding what filters do and do not do is important.

What does the filter remove?

Water Filters: The Many Ways to Purify Your Water

Read the label to see if it is NSF-certified.  If it is, you can search NSF’s databaseexternal icon to learn more about what a particular model is certified to protect you against. Labels on water filters also typically state the contaminants that are reduced, which can help to guide your choice. Be sure to read labels carefully yourself and verify the manufacturer’s claims with an independent source, as not all sales representatives will be familiar with your needs.

Keep in mind that most brands include many different types of filters. Sales people might be able to help you make an appropriate selection, but remember that they are sometimes paid to sell a particular brand. You should check claims and read the fine print on filter packaging for yourself and ensure that it will work for your purposes before purchasing.

Don’t assume that if the filter removes one contaminant, it also removes others. Filters that remove chemicals often do not effectively remove germs, and vice versa. Some water treatment devices that remove chemicals, such as reverse osmosis, ion exchange, or distillation systems, might also remove fluoride. Children who drink water with levels of fluoride <0.6 ppm might need a fluoride supplement. Check with your child’s pediatrician or dentist for specific recommendations.

How much does the system cost?

The prices of different filtration systems can vary widely, from simple systems that can cost under $20 to complex systems costing hundreds of dollars and requiring professional installation. In addition to the price of purchasing and installing the system, consider the cost, schedule, and ease of maintenance, such as changing filter cartridges. In order to continue to work properly, all water treatment systems require maintenance.

How much filtered water do you need?

Some filters are slow, while others can filter large amounts of water quickly. If you only need the filter for personal drinking water, you may not need a fast filter.

What kind of system do you need, and how does it fit into your home?

How Do Water Filters Work?

Filters commonly found in homes and stores include water filter pitchers, end-of-tap or faucet-mounted filters, faucet-integrated (built-in) filters, on-counter filters, under-sink filters, and whole-house treatment units. No filters or treatment systems are 100% effective in removing all contaminants from water, and you need to know what you want your filter to do before you go shopping (see Step 1). Not all filters of a particular type use the same technology, so you should read the label carefully.Water filter pitchers

Water filter pitchers are pitchers that are filled from the top and have built-in filters that water must pass through before being poured out for drinking or other use.

  • Pros: Inexpensive to purchase, no installation, easy to use
  • Cons: Vary by model and pore size, filters must be replaced regularly, slow filtering

Refrigerator filters

Many refrigerators have a built-in filter that supplies water through the door and supplies an automatic icemaker.

  • Pros: Come with many refrigerators, often improve water taste, may also filter water used for making ice, easy to use
  • Cons: Filters must be replaced regularly

Faucet-mounted filters

Faucet-mounted filtration systems attach to a standard faucet and can be switched on and off between filtered and unfiltered water flow.

  • Pros: Can easily switch between filtered and unfiltered water, relatively inexpensive
  • Cons: Do not work with all faucets, may slow water flow

Faucet-integrated (built-in) filters

Faucet-integrated filtration systems are faucets designed with built-in filters (instead of an attached filter, like a faucet-mounted system) and require installation.

  • Pros: Can easily switch between filtered and unfiltered water
  • Cons: Often expensive, require installation

On-counter filters

Faucet-integrated filtration systems are faucets designed with built-in filters (instead of an attached filter, like a faucet-mounted system) and require installation.

  • Pros: Can easily switch between filtered and unfiltered water
  • Cons: Often expensive, require installation

Under-sink filters

Under-sink filtration systems are installed under a sink and send water through a pipe to the filter’s own specially installed faucet.  

  • Pros: Filter large amounts of water, do not take up countertop space
  • Cons: Often expensive, may require modifications to plumbing

Whole-house water treatment

Whole-house water treatment devices treat all water entering the house, not just the water used for drinking. 

  • Pros: Treatment is applied to all water entering your home, which may be important for hard water and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
  • Cons: Often expensive, may require modifications to plumbing, may require professional maintenance, filtering that removes chlorine might increase growth of germs in all the pipes in your house

Treatment devices

This table shows some benefits and limitations of a few popular home water treatment technologies. It does not include information on all filter types including many those that might remove germs via simple pore size filtration. Also see Technical Information on Home Water Treatment Technologies.

Treatment DeviceWhat it Does to WaterTreatment Limitations
Activated Carbon Filter (includes mixed media that remove heavy metals)Absorbs organic contaminants that acuse taste and odor problems.Some designs remove chlorination byproductsSome types remove cleaning solvents and pesticidesIs efficient in removing metals such as lead and copperDoes not remove nitrates, bacteria, or dissolved minerals
Ion Exchange Unit (with activated alumina)Removes minerals, particularly calcium and magnesium that make water “hard”Some designs remove radium and bariumRemoves fluorideIf water has oxidized iron or iron bacteria, the ion-exchnage resin will become coated or clogged and lose its softening ability
Reverse Osmosis Unit (with carbon)Removes nitrates, sodium, other dissolved inorganics and organic compoundsRemoves foul tastes, smells or colorsMay also reduce the level of some pesticides, dioxins, chloroform, and petrochemicalsDoes not remove all inorganic and organic contaminants
Distillation UnitRemoves nitrates, bacteria, sodium, hardness, dissolved solids, most organic compounds, heavy metals, and radionucleidesKills bacteriaDoes not remove some volatile organic contaminants, certain pesticides, and volatile solventsBacteria may recolonize on the cooling coils during inactive periods

Source: EPA. Water on Tap: What You Need to Knowpdf icon

21 Amazing Benefits of Filtered Water

If you think that your tap water can’t be improved then this article isn’t for you. In 2016, only 38% of participants said that ‘tap water is good quality in terms of taste and smell’ in the Consumer Council for Water’s Attitudes to Tap Water Report.

Despite the comparatively good standard of drinking water we have available it still has several impurities. In the case of tap water, odours, heavy metals and cleansing chemicals such as chlorine can remain present, causing unpleasant smells and tastes. In addition to these drawbacks, there can be adverse health affects associated regular consumption of water which inhabits these contaminants. We have also seen in various water crises that tap water is never 100% reliable. 

You may think bottled water is the ideal solution, however, the cost of this both to your finances and the environment means that the best way to ensure your drinking water is of an adequate standard is to invest in a countertop water filter.

Here are 21 benefits you can access with filtered water:   

  1. Eliminate Tap Water Odour

Do you ever turn on the kitchen tap in a bid to rehydrate yourself only to baulk at the odour emanating from the water? Tap water is treated with a range of chemicals and is exposed to heavy metals which give it that unpalatable smell and taste that make it almost unbearable.

The potency of this odour can vary depending on the water quality in your area but one of the best benefits of filtered water is that you can make this odour thing of the past and give yourself clean drinking water. 

  1. Remove Chlorine
8 Tips to Remove Chlorine from Water

Chlorine is the most common cleansing chemical used to treat water supplies in the UK. While chlorine is vital to remove dangerous bacteria and diseases from the water, the tiny proportion that remains can contribute to that tap water odour we’ve already discussed.

The US Council of Environmental Quality once found that cancer risk was 93% higher among those who were exposed to chlorinated drinking water.

The World Health Organisation also found an increased risk of bladder cancer among populations drinking chlorinated water versus those not exposed to chlorinated water over half of their lifetimes.

  1. Save Money on Bottled Water
Why You Should Stop Buying Bottled Water - Anderson Water & Power

Drinking bottled water has become popular culture in the recent decade. The explosion of the fitness industry has coincided and aided the growth of people consuming a lot more bottled water. While this is positive from a public health perspective because people are increasingly opting for water over fizzy soft drinks, it is still needlessly expensive.

Bottled water can be up to 30x more expensive than water from a filter. Whether you’re buying it by the crate or religiously buying a bottle per day, you are massively overspending compared to the price per litre you receive from a water filter. This financial benefit of filtered water not only saves you money but gives you the same revitalising taste you expect from bottled water, straight from your tap.

  1. Reduce Plastic Footprint
How to Reduce Your Plastic Footprint in 2020 - Plastic Collectors

The biggest problem with the surge in the bottled water market is that it’s ruining the environment. 1,000,000 plastic bottles are sold around the world every minute and less than half of the 480 billion plastic bottles sold in 2016 were properly recycled. It requires 17 million barrels of oil every year to produce the level of plastic bottles currently being consumed globally, and the amount of plastic produced each year is now the same weight as humanity!…

WHY DO WE TEST WATER QUALITY? 11 WARNING SIGNS

If you’re in one of the 15 million American households getting your water from a private well, the water your family uses for drinking, cooking, cleaning and bathing is your responsibility.

Without EPA oversight and regulations like public water supplies have, and with your well water quality dependent on the groundwater around you, it can be challenging to ensure a clean water supply. Especially when you consider:

  • 23% of private wells tested had at least one contaminant, according to recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data.
  • Over 7 million Americans get sick from water-borne illnesses every year, according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC).
  • Many of the contaminants in water supplies are tasteless and odorless.

So, why do we test water quality? In the case of well water quality, there could be many things that you can’t see, smell, or taste affecting your home and family.  Your water will be affected by its environment which is constantly changing, so even if your water did not have a certain contaminant last year, it might have been introduced at any time.

11 Contaminants You May Not Know About (But Need To)

There are many things you need to know about owning a well, including ways to improve the quality of your water supply. Here are the most common contaminants you need to know about.

1. Iron and Manganese

Most groundwater will have trace amounts of these naturally occurring contaminants, but if there are large amounts of limestone, shale and coal nearby, you may have elevated levels impacting the groundwater feeding your well. If your water has a metallic taste and/or reddish/brown discoloration — which can also stain pipes and clothing — iron or manganese may be the culprit.

2. Hydrogen Sulfide

Does your water smell like rotten eggs? It could be hydrogen sulfide gas trapped inside your water coming from high sulfur content in the ground. If you live in a marshy area or on a farm near a manure pit, sulfides could be your issue. In addition to the bad odor, sulfides can corrode your plumbing and leave black stains anywhere you use a lot of water.

3. Copper

Copper, like iron, occurs naturally, but if your water has a blue/green discoloration, you may have corroding copper pipes, which might mean a bigger issue in your plumbing infrastructure or unusually acidic water flowing through those pipes. If your water has a significantly lower pH than 7, its acidic properties will strip the metal from your plumbing and faucets. Other sources of copper contamination in your groundwater could be mining or manufacturing activities close to you.

4. Calcium

Having problems with hard water? High mineral counts from your bedrock are the likely cause, with calcium being the most common. Magnesium is another. As water passes through the ground, it dissolves any limestone or other rocks it comes in contact with carries these minerals with it into your home.  While these contaminants rarely impact health, they can still cause a strange taste in the water, soap scum buildup, minor skin irritation and extra wear and tear on your water using appliances.

5. Sodium Chloride

Better known as salt, extra sodium chloride can easily infiltrate your groundwater if you live along a highway or near a parking lot treated with road salt during winter months in colder areas of the country. The runoff could lead to a white residue in your water, alter the taste a bit and of course negatively impact you if you’re on a sodium-restricted diet. You also may see salt water intrusion if you own a home off the coast. Shifts in the weather can see the water from the ocean mix with groundwater more or less than usual.

6. Other Chemicals & Minerals

The above items really only scratch the surface of chemicals and minerals that could invade your water supply. PFOS chemicals, arsenic and silica are other possible water contaminants to watch out for depending on your geographic area. Radon gas is another, which, for example, is colorless, tasteless, odorless and radioactive, which amplifies the need for testing.

7. Dirt

Problems might not always be at the microscopic level. If dirt and sediment gets into your well pump, large particles and murky water could make it into your tap (along with any number of the above chemicals too). This could mean larger structural integrity concerns with your well, pump, tank or pipes.

8. Air

If your faucets are sputtering before water flows normally, you have excess air in your system. While this won’t negatively impact your health, it’s still a contaminant in the sense that it’s something coming through that you don’t want to be there. More importantly, it could indicate a change in the water table, damage to your drop pipe or an issue with your well pump, so it’s an issue you should pay attention to.

9. Suspended Organic & Inorganic Particles

Plant matter, leaf litter, insects getting inside your well cap and other environmental factors like erosion, flooding and fires can contribute to organic or inorganic particulate matter entering your water supply. Yellow or white/cloudy discoloration could be an indicator of such contamination, though it may not be quite so obvious.

10. Nitrates

In addition to organic and inorganic particles, there are chemical units that can combine with those compounds — like nitrates, or nitrogen-oxygen compounds. While they’re nutrients for plants, excess nitrates can leach into groundwater, especially following heavy rain or flooding. Fertilizers can also contain nitrates that could make it into your well water, especially considering they don’t bind well to soil. A variety of health issues are possible, especially for babies under 6 months old, but since nitrates are microscopic, it’s hard to tell they’re there without testing.

11. Coliform Bacteria

Bacteria like Giardia, or E. coli — can enter your water supply through animal waste like from a manure pit or sewage from a septic tank. Bacteria can also come from the bodies of decomposing animals that may have found a way into your well cap but were unable to find their way out. You can’t see or smell these bacteria, which makes testing that much more important, especially if you’ve had a sewage overflow or flooding recently. Storm or agricultural runoff could be all it takes for bacteria to make their way into your well water. While consuming water with bacteria in it isn’t harmful to your health, you might notice it giving you an upset stomach or diarrhea.

How to Test Water Quality & Choosing Between DIY or Pro

The National Groundwater Association (NGWA) provides online resources for homeowners with private wells at WellOwner.org. There you can learn more about well maintenance, water quality, and water treatment options.

While it’s important to know how a well works and keep up on basic maintenance yourself, the most important way to ensure safe water in the face of tasteless, odorless and colorless contaminants is through annual testing by a licensed professional. Samples of your water should be sent to a certified laboratory, which can give you detailed results about your water.

Ultimately, well water will never be perfect (neither will city water …

The Best Water Filters For Your Home

Clean up your drinking water with a pitcher, faucet attachment, or under-sink system.

You may not be able to control the quality of your well or municipal water, but you can use a filter to protect yourself and your family from potentially harmful contaminants—or just improve your water’s taste. We found the best options to make your water cleaner and healthier.

Check out quick info below of the top five water filters, then scroll deeper for buying tips and full reviews of these models plus other high-ranking options.

Do You Need a Water Filter?

While the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates public water supplies, this doesn’t mean your water is totally free of certain contaminants like chlorine, asbestos, cadmium, copper, and fluoride. But in order to assess whether or not you should get a filter, you need to understand your water source and its potential contaminants.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that if you get water from a private well, you get it tested at a state-certified lab at least annually. If you get water from a public system, you’ll get a report from the EPA on the quality of your drinking water that will come with your water bill and tell you what contaminants your water may have.

You may decide you want a water filter just to improve the taste of your tap water, even if you think the poor taste isn’t due to anything actually harmful to your health. However, the CDC warns that many contaminants cannot be seen, tasted, or smelled. If you confirm your water source may have harmful amounts of arsenic, nitrates, chlorine, lead, or other contaminants, you’ll want a water filter that can specifically address those concerns.

What Kind of Filter Do You Need?

No filter will remove all contaminants, so it’s important to select the right type for your water source. We looked into all kinds of filters, from under-sink and countertop systems to faucet attachments, pitchers, and dispensers. The price range of water filters is vast, ranging from reverse osmosis models that cost hundreds to $20 pitchers. In addition to your water source and budget, you should consider the speed of the filter and your household size as well as how easy it is to install and maintain. You can search some filters in NSF’s database to learn in more detail about what contaminants each is designed to protect you from. The most common NSF/ANSI standards to be aware of include 42 (for removing chlorine and other bad tastes and odors), 53 (for reducing health contaminants like heavy metals), and 401 (for “emerging contaminants” like pharmaceuticals).

How We Rated Them

We researched ten expert sources and 27,000 consumer reviews to select the best water filters. To determine the Total Expert Score, we calculated the ratings from trusted publications, such as TechGearLab and Helpful Habitat, and converted them to a 100-point scale to make it easier for you to weigh the best options. Because more affordable faucet attachments, pitchers, and dispensers aren’t rated by enough sources for us to give them expert scores, we relied solely on consumer reviews for those models. Our Consumer Score represents the percentage of people who rated the product at least four out of five stars on retail and review sites like Amazon, Walmart, and Home Depot.

The iSpring RCC7 is a five-stage reverse osmosis filter that you can install under your sink to remove 99.9 percent of harmful contaminants (like lead and chlorine) that may be in your municipal or well water. TechGearLab awarded it Editors’ Choice for that, but also its ability to extract about 95 percent of salt. It comes with three pre-filters—a PP sediment, carbon KDF, and carbon block, which you should replace roughly every year. After water flows through those, a reverse-osmosis filter does the heavy-lifting of removing contaminants before a fine carbon GEC filter performs a final polish to deliver clean water to your faucet.

If you’re looking for something more permanent than a pitcher, this under-sink filter is easy to install yourself. Though the flow rate is on the low end for reverse-osmosis filters, it’s a rating of 75 gallons per day should provide plenty of clean drinking water even for a big family. Many Amazon reviewers also confirmed that the iSpring produced completely neutral-tasting water.

Apex MR-1050 Alkaline

Total Expert Score: 84/100 | Consumer Score: 86% give it 4 stars or more

Rather than installing under the sink, this water filter sits on your countertop and attaches to most standard kitchen faucets. It’s an alkaline filter, meaning it adds healthy minerals like calcium, magnesium, and potassium back into your water while balancing the pH of the water to make it less acidic. It can also clean up to 750 gallons of water—or six to eight months’ worth for a family of four—before you need to replace the filter, though the replacement is relatively expensive. Amazon reviewers preferred Apex’s countertop filter for the health benefits associated with alkaline water, like immune system support and detoxification.

Brita SAFF-100

Total Expert Score: NA | Consumer Score: 65% give it 4 stars or more

Brita’s faucet-attachment filter reduces 60 contaminants, which is less than what a five-stage filtration system can do. But it still removes 99 percent of lead, chlorine, benzene, and other particles commonly found in tap water. On Amazon, one user said that Brita’s faucet filters “are effective for the well water that comes into my house, which has high sulfur content and very high iron content.”

This filter will last up to four months or 100 gallons—again, not as long as under-sink systems. However, the fact that the device is visible on your faucet instead of hidden away underneath your sink, along with the status indicator, helps remind you when it’s time to replace the filter.…

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